The Andrews Family Confectioners & Transport entrepreneurs Llanelly
W. Andrews’ high-class confectionery shop was the landmark feature at the corner of the Vaughan Street side of Llanelly House for probably over a 130 years; it appeared in the earliest photographs of the building, c1900 and the shop is remembered by almost everyone born and raised in Llanelli from the 1920s onwards.
I knew a little about the last of the Andrews family to work there due to a family friendship dating from the late 1890s, but the searches through the Census returns really captured my imagination & curiosity led me to delve even deeper as the results revealed some wonderful tales of Victorian vision, drive & entrepreneurship.
Just why the Andrews family from Trowbridge, Wiltshire, then a prosperous English country town synonymous with weaving & the wool trade, turned from cloth production to sugar-boiling & confectionery, remains undiscovered, but my research has unearthed evidence of many bakers & confectioners originating from Trowbridge opening businesses in South Wales, and interestingly, the Andrews descendants married into several of these, but the Andrews chose to relocate further west than most, to Carmarthen, before the census of 1841.
John Andrews, the Patriarch
The earliest records of the Andrews family of Confectioners & Sugar Boilers, start with John Andrews, born 6 September 1806 in Malmesbury, Wiltshire. What exactly attracted the Andrews family to the west of Wales by the 1840’s is unknown, but the great trek westward to Carmarthen was quite an undertaking for the time, especially for a family with 6 young children.
John Andrews had married Charlotte Rutter (born Stroud, Gloucestershire c1810) on 11 March 1828 at the Parish Church in Trowbridge, and together they went to have 4 boys & 2 girls. John Andrews arrived in Carmarthenshire sometime before March of 1841, as we find him on the Census aged 32, a Baker, living in Church Lane, Carmarthen, lodging with a widow and her daughter; his wife Charlotte and their children were at this time, still in Wiltshire:
|1841 Census: Trowbridge, Wiltshire|
|Charlotte Andrews||32 - Wool Weaver||b. Wiltshire|
A decade on, Charlotte and their children, except for their third son Solomon Andrews, had joined John Andrews and had set up a Confectionery Shop in King Street, Carmarthen and the older children were working in the family business:
|1851 Census: King St, Carmarthen|
|John Andrews||44 - Confectioner||b. Trowbridge, Wiltshire|
|Charlotte Andrews||43||b. Stroud, Gloucestershire|
|James Andrews||23 - Confectioner||b. Trowbridge, Wiltshire|
|Mark Andrews||17 - Confectioner||"|
In fact, all of John & Charlotte’s children followed their parents into the confectionery business but, a clear sign of women‘s roles at that time, only the four sons list their occupations as Confectioners or Sugar Boilers on the 19th Century censuses, the daughters having an occupation could well have been viewed as unseemly. All the Andrews sons established successful family businesses that continued to trade as Confectioners & Bakers into the 20th century in the main towns of Carmarthen, Llanelli & Cardiff. In the main, the sons & daughters of John Andrews & Charlotte Rutter married children of other confectioners originating from Trowbridge, the sons living in Wales married girls from Trowbridge and also employed girls in their Welsh sweet shops & bakeries from the extended family, the Rutters, the Ashers and the Harts, also from Trowbridge. John & Charlotte Andrews left Carmarthen & returned to Trowbridge sometime before 1861. John’s death was registered in Melksham, Wiltshire in early 1879.
More of James Andrews, who is our main interest given that he came to Llanelli to set up business in Llanelly House later in this article.
John & Charlotte’s eldest daughter Caroline, married in Carmarthen in 1852, Charles Harries, a Bookbinder from Llandovery and after a brief stay in William Street, Llanelly, moved to Coity near Bridgend, where she appears on several censuses as a Confectioner. Her mother Charlotte, is found living with them after the death of John Andrews in 1879, until her death there in 1894.
Ann Andrews, the youngest child, we find living with her older brother Solomon in Cardiff, after their parents moved back to Trowbridge. She also married a man from Trowbridge, a William Terrell who after their marriage, became a cab driver with S. Andrews & Son, Solomon’s bus company.
The Carmarthen Andrews Family
Jacob Andrews, the youngest son, took over his father’s Carmarthen business, trading first from the property in King street where we found the family in 1851, later adding another branch at 14 Queen Street, Carmarthen, where they traded for a great many years & adding a 3rd branch at 1 Market Place by 1895. Jacob Andrews married 3 times during his life, but 3 of his 4 sons and his 4 colourfully-named daughters, Ophelia, Rosena, Amanda & Ira May, came from his 1st wife Lucy Ann Moseley. One of his claims to fame is that he rode the very 1st bicycle ever seen in Carmarthen. Jacob’s son Edward John Andrews continued the flourishing business and became a pillar of Carmarthen life, a member of the Board of Guardians, was a devout member and sidesman of St Peter’s Church, a member of the Towy Fishery Board. An expert shot, he represented Wales at shooting on 4 occasions. He was a keen rugby player, and fisherman, and like his father a keen cyclist & member of the Carmarthen Sports Association, and was a prime mover in establishing the cycle racing track in Carmarthen Park c1900. Bertie Andrews, Jacob’s youngest son, maintained the family tradition and became a successful racing cyclist of some fame, appearing on cycle tracks all over the country.
John & Charlotte’s 4th son, Mark Andrews, moved to Cardiff and is shown on the 1881 Census as a Sugar Boiler, a widower with 2 young daughters, Catherine age 8 & Charlotte A. age 6. He re-married, to another Trowbridge girl, Louisa Randall, and worked in several of his brother Solomon’s enterprises, as a Confectioner, even as a Car Driver, before spending his later years in Trowbridge as a Confectioner.
Cardiff & Solomon Andrews, Entrepreneur & Businessman
John & Charlotte’s 3rd son Solomon Andrews, b. 1835, the son who didn't join them in Carmarthen, has the most extraordinary story of them all. Solomon headed from Trowbridge, Wiltshire directly to the city of Cardiff, which was starting to boom. Solomon is found in 1851 as a lodger with John Asher & his family, also Confectioners originally from Trowbridge. Solomon went on to marry Mary Ann Asher, the sister of John Asher, in Trowbridge.
Solomon, with little more than determination & ambition and his skills as a sweet-maker started with a wooden tray slung from his neck, selling his wares as a street-vendor. He rapidly went on to amass a considerable fortune, firstly by taking over a Bakery & Confectioner’s Shop in James Street, down the Docks; within a decade he had a string of shops all across Cardiff & South Glamorgan, including the Valleys; he was soon running cabs & horse-brakes, from the Docks to the City centre and then running horse-drawn buses over dozens of routes throughout Cardiff, Newport and beyond. He employed over 200 men, including his brother Mark Andrews and his nephews from Carmarthen and Llanelly (George & Albert).
Running of his horse-drawn buses over the same routes as other company’s trams caused a nasty ‘Turf War’ between Andrews & other rival bus & tram companies, and there were tales of skulduggery and intrigue before the matter was amicably settled, with Solomon Andrews selling the bulk of his transport interest for a fortune, keeping only the routes between Cardiff, Penarth & Llandaff. He was obviously a man of ruthless drive and ambition. His company, S. Andrews & Son also ran horse bus routes in many English cities, Manchester, Nottingham, and several routes in London. Solomon had bought a Coach building company early on in his expansion and by 1872 was producing his own vehicles, the Andrews “Patent” bus, selling these to towns & cities all over the UK. He, in partnership with his brother James, set up horse drawn transport in Llanelly about this time, using the Andrews “Patent” buses built & supplied by S. Andrew & Co., Coach Builders, Cardiff.
Solomon was joined in the business by his son Francis Emile Andrews (curiously pronounced as E-mile) by the 1880s, together they set up a construction company building houses & business premises all over the Cardiff and Penarth area. In 1884, Solomon Andrews was the man who built Cardiff Market Buildings; also the Penarth Arcade and many of the grand Victorian buildings along Windsor Road. His son Emile appears to have been a chip off the entrepreneurial block, and expanded S. Andrews & Son into many other fields; what had started with small-scale baking & confectionery in a single shop in James Street, Cardiff Docks, had expanded into groceries, medicines, engineering, coach building, transport, construction, property development, furniture removals, skating rinks, cinemas and not least, undertakers, with premises in all parts of Cardiff. The families lived in some splendor in large, impressive neighbouring houses on the Newport Road in Roath.
Solomon Andrews was also the man behind the David Evans Department Stores in both Cardiff & Swansea. Sadly, the Swansea store, a magnificent emporium, a building of quality Victorian architecture, standing on the junction of Goat Street & Temple Street, a stone’s throw from Swansea Castle, was completely destroyed in the Blitz in 1940.
By the early 1900s S. Andrews & Sons had become an international company, with business operations in Australia; two of Solomon’s Carmarthen great-nephews & one great-niece (Walter, Edward J & Gwladys, children of Jacob‘s son Edward Andrews), & two of his Llanelly nephews (Frank & George, James‘eldest two sons), & their families left Wales to work in the family firm, establishing branches of the Andrews family in Western & South Australia. Back on home soil, even in his retirement, Solomon’s interests extended to developing Pwllheli, North Wales as a holiday resort, after hearing about some prime land becoming available there while recuperating in Llandudno after losing part of his leg in a building accident on one of his construction sites in Cardiff. ‘Solly’ Andrews’ and his remarkable story was the subject of a short BBC Wales film in 2010. The story of his extraordinary life can be found in “Keep Moving“ : The Story of Solomon Andrews & His Family, written by his descendent John F Andrews, published 1997.
Now, to our main interest, James Andrews the eldest son who came to Llanelli started trading in the town from c1858 and whose business continued down through his descendants trading until post-WWII
J. Andrews, Confectioners, Llanelly House, Llanelly
The eldest of John & Charlotte Andrews’ sons, James Andrews, who was the initial reason for me tracing the Andrews family history, arrived in Llanelly in the late 1850‘s, firstly setting up his Confectionery business in Wind Street, later moving into Llanelly House, and occupying a large part of the House. The
business passed through the hands of three generations, from James to son William, and from William to his wife & then to his daughter Olive Andrews, Olive being the last member of the Andrews family to keep a confectionery shop until the middle of the 20th century.
James Andrews had married Anne Hughes of Carmarthen c1853 in Kidwelly before we find them in Llanelli on the 1861 Census.
|1861Census: Wind Street, Llanelly|
|James Andrews||33 - Confectioner, Master||b. Trowbridge, Wiltshire|
|Anne Andrews||33||b. Carmarthen|
|George Andrews||7 son||b. Llanelly|
|Albert Andrews||5 son||b. Llanelly|
|Dorothy Hughes||mother-in-law, widow||b. Carmarthen|
Wind Street was a busy street just off Thomas Street, which was the bustling main thoroughfare at the time, near the Thomas Arms & near the Horse Fair.
The 1871 Llanelly Census reveals that James Andrews had had some terrible turmoil in his life; I discovered that his wife Anne had died in early 1866 and he’d married Mary Ann Hart, also from Trowbridge, Wiltshire, in Cardiff in late 1866. James’s brother Solomon’s mother-in-law was a Sarah Hart born c1787 in Wiltshire, leading to think there was a familial link.
To return to Llanelly, in 1871 we find Mary Ann Hart & James Andrews have already started a family, adding to his sons by his 1st wife Mary Hughes, George & Albert, two more sons, Frank & William:
|1871 Census: Church street, Llanelly|
|James Andrews||42 - Confectioner & Sugar Boiler||b. Trowbridge, Wiltshire|
|Mary A Andrews||33||"|
|George Andrews||17 - Confectioner||b. Llanelly|
|Albert Andrews||14 - Scholar||"|
|Frank Andrews||5 - Scholar||"|
Llanelly was at this time an expanding industrial town with a rapidly growing population; entrepreneurs and businessmen were flocking to the town eager to invest in the burgeoning coal, iron, steel & tinplate industries; workers to service these industries were flooding in from all parts of the neighbouring counties, and from the west of England, Ireland & Scotland. The town centre was also expanding rapidly and a huge array of retail businesses had opened to meet the increasing consumer demand in all areas from food to furniture. Sweet-making had long been a cottage-industry in Llanelly, with spinsters & widows often making the traditional Welsh sweets “losins dant” and “losins du” in their kitchens, to sell from their front rooms. Now, larger production was becoming necessary and ever more sophisticated lines called for. Like many other retail trades, such as grocery & drapery, businesses tended to be kept within the same families for several generations and in many cases, prospered well into the next century.
The family’s move from Wind Street to Church Street had happened in the decade between the 61 & 71 Census, and the move into the Vaughan Street part of Llanelly House took place some time before the 1881 Census. By that date, James Andrews had become a successful businessman and along with his large family, was “living above the shop“ in Llanelly House, and is listed:
|1881 Census: 12 Vaughan Street, Llanelly|
|James Andrews||52 - Confectioner, employer 5 men & 2 boys||b. Trowbridge|
|Mary Ann Andrews||44 - wife of James||"|
|Albert Andrews||24 - single, Sugar Refiner, Sugar Boiler||b. Mertyr Tydfil|
|Frank Andrews||13 - Scholar||b. Llanelly|
|Willie Andrews||11 - Scholar||"|
|Mary J. Andrews||9 - Scholar||"|
|Florence A. Andrews||7 - Scholar||"|
|Kate G. Andrews||5 - Scholar||"|
|James G. Andrews||2||"|
|Maud H. Andrews||2 months||"|
|Alice Hart||19 - niece, assistant in Confectioners Shop||b. Trowbridge|
|Eliza Lawley||31 - servant, assistant in Confectioners Shop|
|Mary Green||26 - domestic servant||b. Newprt, Mon.|
|Rebecca Pritchard||18 - domestic servant||b. Maesteg, Glam.|
Alice Hart was the daughter of Mary Ann’s twin brother, James Hart, and note that the shop assistants and household help were not local girls… reducing the chance of them smuggling sweets to their relatives! The sheer numbers of people- 14 - listed as staying at the address the night of the Census shows they must have occupied a large part of Llanelly House.
A Sugar Boiler is such a wonderfully evocative job description; there was plenty of space at Llanelly House for James to set up the array of equipment needed for the production of the many different sweets and toffees, from a variety of copper boilers, with long tables for kneading & stretching the mixtures and we can imagine that the smell of boiling sugar pervaded the upper floors, with a delicious, warm stickiness.
By the 1870s James, sharing his brother Solomon’s entrepreneurial eye for business diversification and in partnership with Solomon, had made a move into providing public transport, firstly by hiring out horse-drawn cabs and then operating a horse-drawn omnibus service, “a Tuppeny bus” between Llanelly Railway Station, via Stepney Street and Vaughan Street to the Athenaeum, directly opposite Andrews sweet shop. James Andrews based his transport business from a mews in Murray Street where they also hired out horse-drawn cabs and provided stabling. The vehicles were made & owned by S. Andrews & Sons, Solomon’s highly successful transport & coach-building company in Cardiff. James appears to have employed a succession of managers to look after the Mews whilst he concentrated on his Vaughan Street shop, and sold the transport business sometime near the end of the 1890s to the Vivian Family. The Andrews brothers caused some controversy in Llanelli at the time, mirroring what Solomon had started in Cardiff, namely, Tram Wars!
In 1882, a Nottingham entrepreneur, a Mr Winby, who had been responsible for laying tramways in Glasgow & parts of London, completed the contract to lay tracks for horse-drawn trams along various routes around Llanelli, and set up the Llanelly Tramway Company. The Andrews brothers ran their horse-drawn bus along part of the tramway tracks from the Station, resulting in the Llanelly Tramway Company seeking a court-order to prevent this. Due to a legal loop-hole, the Andrews surprisingly won the case, resulting eventually by 1883, the Tramway Company had no alternative but to compromise & grant Solomon Andrews the lease of the Llanelly Tramway for 10 years at a rent equal to 5% per annum of the profits. S. Andrews & Sons again built & supplied the buses used on Llanelli’s rails.
In the Kelly’s South Wales Directory of 1895, James Andrews is listed in the Llanelly Commercial section thus: James Andrews, confectioner & fancy repository, Vaughan Street, & cab proprietor, Murray Street.
By 1901 James Andrews had retired from the confectionery business and with wife Mary Ann, and their 2 youngest daughters, Jennie (Mary Jane) & Maud, had left Llanelly & moved to 6 Brooklyn Terrace, Newton, Mumbles, Swansea.
The Andrews high-class confectionery shop on the Vaughan Street side of Llanelly House was now taken over by James & Mary Ann’s son William Andrews who had married in 1893, Rosetta Williams (a young Milliner at a drapery owned by David Robt Morgan, in Stepney Street). Rosetta was the daughter of Daniel Williams, who with his wife Eliza, had come to Llanelly from Llandyfeilog, Carmarthenshire, to work in the metal industries, first as a Lead Smelter and later in the Tin Works, before becoming a Haulier.
The Llanelly Mercury of Thursday 8th June 1893 records William & Rosetta’s wedding :
ANDREWS - WILLIAMS
On the 7th inst. at the English Wesleyan Chapel, Hall Street, by the Rev. James Shearman, William Andrews, Confectioner, Vaughan Street, Llanelly to Miss Rosetta Williams, Campbell Street, New Dock.
William & Rosetta Andrews too, lived over the sweet shop, in Llanelly House, and Rosetta worked In the business with William, although the 1901 Kelly’s Trade Directory, shows Rose Andrews, Fancy Draper & Milliner, 32 Murray Street, Llanelly. They went on to have 2 daughters, Olive, born 1894, and Doris born 1903.
|1901: Vaughan Street, Llanelly|
|William Andrews||31 - Confectioner, Shop Keeper||b. Llanelly|
|Rosetta Andrews||31 - wife of William||"|
|Olive Andrews||6 - daughter||"|
|Kate Andrews||25 - sister||"|
|Alice M Evans||18 - domestic servant||"|
Sadly, William Andrews died in the spring of 1904 aged just 34. His widow Rosetta took over the running the sweet shop on the corner of Llanelly House, later to be joined by her elder daughter Olive Andrews. MrsRosetta Andrews was an astute business woman and the business continued to be successful; she was by all accounts, a pocket dynamo, a tiny little woman but of great character & inner strength. More tests of this strength & determination were to follow.
In 1910, the upper floors of Llanelly House had been reclaimed by the Stepney family for the impending 1911 wedding & celebrations of Meriel Stepney to Sir Edward Stafford Howard & the upper floors and hallway of the house underwent extensive renovations. Rosetta & her two daughters, along with the other the residents of the upper floors of Llanelly House, had to make alternative living arrangements. By this time, members of the Andrews Family had lived at Llanelly House for 3 generations. By 2nd Apr 1911, the date of the next Census, Rosetta and her daughters had moved with her father & brother to Queen Victoria Road.
|1911 Census: 3, Queen Victoria Road, Llanelly|
|Rosetta Andrews||40 - Head, widow, confectioner, own account||b. Llanelly|
|Olive Andrews||17 - daughter, assisting in business||"|
|Doris Andrews||8 - daughter, school||"|
|Daniel Williams||74 - Indisposed (Haulier)||b.Llnd’feilog|
|Fred Williams||27 - Working Steel Works||b. Llanelly|
|Maggie Richards||27 - servant||"|
William & Rosetta’s youngest daughter Doris, suffered for many years from tuberculosis, the disease that wiped out generations of young people before the advent of antibiotics. It had no respect for class or wealth; with all the finances available to the extended Andrews family, they sent Doris to several different sanatoria in Switzerland in search of a cure, but sadly she died by her mid-20‘s.
Kelly’s Directory of South Wales 1923
Private Residents: Mrs Andrews 24, Coleshill Terrace, Llanelly.
Commercial: Mrs Rosetta Andrews, Confectioner, Vaughan Street
In 1924, Olive Andrews married John Edgar Pugh, the youngest brother & partner in the Pugh Brothers furniture business, a fellow resident of Queen Victoria Road, at that time, living at Fernholme, No. 53.
Pugh Brothers Furnishers became one of the most successful furniture companies in South Wales during the C20th, selling high quality furniture, carpets & furnishing. In the 19th century this high quality furniture was made by their own cabinet-making company based in Station Rd, but as tastes changed & the business evolved, furniture was bought in from the major fashionable UK suppliers. The family-run business eventually closed in 2004.
Both Olive & John were successful business people by the time they married. Their wedding is described in the Llanelly & County Guardian of Thursday 16th October 1924 thus:
PUGH - ANDREWS
The wedding took place at All Saint’s Church on Tuesday of Mr John E. Pugh son of Mr & Mrs T. Pugh “Fernholme” Queen Victoria Road and Miss Olive Andrews, the daughter of the late Mr William Andrews & Mrs Andrews, 24 Coleshill Terrace. Canon Watkyn Morgan officiated and the best man was Mr D.S. Pugh, the groomsman was Marie Roberts (sic), The bride was attired in white charmeuse with a bridal veil and was attended by her sister, Miss Doris Andrews, who was dressed in blue taffetta with a black picture hat. The reception was held at the Stepney Hotel when over forty guests attended & later in the day the newly-married couple left for the honeymoon which is being spent in London & the South Coast.
Olive & John Pugh lived at 24 Coleshill Terrace after their marriage, sharing her mother Rosetta‘s home overlooking Coleshill School & the Town Hall grounds; they had no children of their own, but were the much-loved aunt & uncle to John’s nephews & nieces and their families and honorary aunt & uncle to the children of their many friends. They were looked after in their later years by Olive’s great-niece Muriel and her husband Jack Williams, who I believe, lived in Hedley Terrace. John Pugh passed away in early 1980, aged 88 and Olive soon after, in early 1981, aged 86, after suffering ill health for several years.
By the time of Olive’s death her family’s old sweet shop had undergone several changes of ownership, and the Andrews name was no longer synonymous with Llanelly House, but in summing up this story of her ancestors we should take time to consider how we should view the family and their achievements.
The story of the Andrews family is a remarkable one; they were the embodiment of a successful family of Industrial Revolution Britain, when a tireless work-ethic and intelligence meant that for the first time people could achieve some degree of success without the wealth that came from family connections of the land-owning classes. The sons of John & Charlotte all possessed an industrious ingenuity, skill & a degree of ruthlessness needed to accomplish the extraordinary lives they all carved for themselves; they chose their wives carefully, they shared their successes within their family, working together, supporting each other’s businesses, adapting & utilising new technologies, employing generation after generation, contributing hugely to their individual communities but all their successes in business were sadly counterbalanced with the familiar tragedy of 19th and early 20th century life before the advent of penicillin and the medical expertise that we take so lightly today; they lost wives in childbirth and to disease, and every single generation of the extended family lost many adults & children to the disregarder of wealth that was tuberculosis. However, the Andrews descendants are still operating businesses in Wales and in Australia.
©Lisa M Voyle March 2013
Some memories of Olive Andrews
Olive’s life-long friend, Lilla Phillips, the youngest daughter of William Phillips, Grocer & Tea Merchant of The Tea Pot Shop, 4 Thomas Street & his wife Rose Bowen, daughter of David Bowen, “Deheufardd”, was married to my maternal grandmother’s brother, Nat Phillips; Esme, their daughter and my mother, Doreen, remember ‘Aunty Olive & Uncle John’ with a great deal of affection and loved hearing Aunty Olive’s stories of “living over the shop” in Llanelly House; one of the most memorable stories is the one of Olive & Lilla as small children, the house echoing to their laughter, learning to ride their bicycles along the sloping long galleries, & as they became more confident, even testing their steering skills riding around on the roof in fine weather, under the watchful eye of a servant.
Lilla used to regularly take Esme & Doreen to meet Aunty Olive for afternoon tea in the café on the 1st floor at the Regal Cinema where she would treat them to Knickerbocker Glories so high that the two little girls had to kneel on the Lloyd Loom chairs to reach into them with their spoons.
As children, Esme & Doreen loved visiting Aunty Olive at her shop, which they both describe as very high-class, a magical shop with wonderful glass jars full of sweets of all colours & glamorous boxes of chocolates & toffees, all beautifully packaged, and not least, the huge scary cat curled up asleep on the counter! Better cat hairs than mice…. Doreen has a vivid recollection of the huge cane basket in the Easter window display, filled with Easter eggs of all colours and sizes, and pastel-coloured sugared almonds; Andrews Confectioery shop was truly a sweetshop of a small child’s dreams.
Memories of Mrs Andrews’ Sweet Shop
As remembered by the late Rhoda Hancock, published in WEA's Llanelli Miscellany No.6, 1991, ‘A Walk From School, 1938’, page 43.
and lastly on the right hand corner of Vaughan Street, Llanelly House, an imposing Georgian-style building which housed Mrs Andrews’s very exclusive confectioner’s shop on the ground floor. It was an education to stop and view the tasteful displays of expensive sweets, truffles, fondants, marzipans and sugared almonds in tall glass jars with pyramidal lids, and large boxes of chocolates trimmed with elaborate ribbon bows, and artificial flowers. At Easter-time, the window display was out of this world.
Notes and Citations
Copyright: © Lisa M Voyle 2011.
Images: Reproduced by kind permission of Carmarthenshire Museum & Library services
1841 -1911 Census
Ancestry.co.uk, Public Family Trees
Homes of Historic Interest in & around Llanelli: Compiled by W & B Afan Rees
Kelly’s Directories of South Wales, 1895; 1910; 1923
Keep Moving: The Story of Solomon Andrews & his Family, by John F.Andrews, pub 1997
A Llanelli Chronicle: Compiled by Gareth Hughes
Llanelli Miscellany No.23. Article by Esmor Davies,
Llanelli Lives: Howard M Jones
Llanelli: The Story of a Town: John Edwards
Llanelly & Co Guardian: October 1924
Llanelly Mercury: June 1893
Lyn John & Robert Protheroe-Jones: Holloway’s Garage, Llanelli Community Heritage website.
Conversations with Esme Mortimer, nee Phillips b.1926, daughter of Lilla Phillips, Olive‘s life-long friend. & Doreen Voyle, nee Thomas, b.1923, Lilla’s niece & mother of the author of this article.